Data Science

Advanced Data Science Concepts – Part 2

  1. Introduction to Big Data
  2. Introduction to Relational Database Management System
  3. Mobility Data Processing
  4. Introduction to Internet of Things (IoT) *


1. Introduction to Big Data

Big data refers to datasets have size or complexity that makes the use of traditional data analytics method inadequate. Although the concept have been in use since the 90s, the recent growth in data creating channels in the past decade has led to its popularity.

The concept of Big Data is base on the three Vs, which are:

  • Volume: Large size of data ranging few terabytes to several hundreds of terabytes
  • Variety: Variety of data modern times includes not texts and images.
  • Velocity: Refers to rate of growth of data



Areas of application includes Government population data, large social networks and electronic medical records.

More Information can be found below:

Big Data and Big Data Analytics Explained!


2. Introduction to Relational Database Management System

RDBMS derives from DBMS(Database Management System) and refers to the techniques applied in managing data using tables. Consider how people normally keep records using tables. Several records are stored row by row with fields or columns representing the different data types in the record.

Relational Database Management System

Some relational database management system includes the following

Oracle – This is robust database management system described as being multi-model developed and maintained by the Oracle Corporation

Microsoft SQL Server: One of the most-commonly used enterprise RDBMS developed by Microsoft. It runs on the Windows Operating system but more recently, a Linux verison has been released.

Apache Derby: A light-weight relational database management system based on Java and can be used for embedded systems and online transaction processing applications. Apache Derby is developed by Apache Software Foundation.

MySQL: An Open Source RDBMS available under the GNU licence. MySQL is written in C and C++

SAP HANA: An in-memory, column-based database management system developed by SAP


3. Mobility Data Processing

To understand the concept of Mobility Data Analytics, we need to understand the concept of Mobility Data. This refers to data related to Mobile Devices and Users. Study of Mobility Data Analytics have not been widely known. There are two reasons for this:

1. Mobility Data Analytics applies a more advanced technology different from the traditional data analytics methods

2. Sensitive Nature of Mobility Data: This data is securely maintained by Telecommunication firms with minimal access by Government regulatory agencies. So most time, this data is not available to researchers, let alone the public.

This makes it difficult to defined a unified method to model this data as the data structures are proprietary to the particular Network Firm controlling it.


4. Introduction to Internet of Things (IoT)

This is kind of digression from the topic though!

This is an extension of the existing internet to include more devices and things. Traditional, existing internet connects computers, tablets and smart phones. But taken further, items such as vehicles, wrist watches, aircraft, electrical and home appliances could also be connected to the internet. Taken further still, other items such as buildings, animals, doors, kids could be connected to the internet and monitored remotely.


What’s The Big Deal

Why this concept of IOT could be considered technologically revolutionary is not not the connections between things but the fact that connected devices could communicate with little or no human intervention. An example is when systems updates to the latest software/firmware version by communicating with the update server. In the bigger picture, connected devices could maintain themselves, protect/defend themselves, make expenses, take decisions to avert danger etc.



Let’s now take some time to discuss some of the real-life application areas of Internet-of-things.

Automated Homes (Smart Homes): Internet of Things makes it possible to have homes being completely automated. This means that home equipment can be controlled over the internet. Thinks of being able to switch of and off your home air-conditioner from your office or maybe lock or open your door from anywhere on the internet. What is takes is simple that the devices at home have some sensor equiped with electronic chip that can be assigned an IP address. Refrigerators, doors, gas cookers, heaters, AC, fan, lights could be put online.

Healthcare and Medicine(Internet of Heath Things): This starts with having devices that could remotely monitor medical devices such as monitoring patients pulse, heartbeat, blood pressure, temperature and other vital signs over the network. The next level of Internet of Health Things (IoHT) has to do with telemedicine with a broader application of being able to administer medical diagnosis and treatment by physicians in a remote location. In some modern hospitals, there is already smartbeds being deployed to help monitor movement of the patient as well as when they are trying to leave the bed

Smart Transportation: This is different from self-driving cars. It involves automating the transportation network in such a way that the vehicle could be monitored. Added to that vehicles could automatically report on their location, status as well as any mechanical issue that may be about to develop. Assets being transported by trucks can as well be monitored and routes could be mapped and adjusted as needed.

Agriculture: Farms can be monitored and farm data could be logged and used to take decisions. IoT enabled devices and sensors could be used to monitor moisture, humidity and rainfall and irrigation could be controlled based on real-time feedback from the farm sensors.

Industry and Manufacturing: Various production and manufacturing equipment could be integrated to make the manufacturing process more efficient

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